Of The Sea
The Institute for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law (ISRIM) is an independent research institute in Bremen, Germany. It has a. Gütesiegel der Organisation Friend of the Sea für Fisch und Meeresfrüchte aus nachhaltiger Fischerei und nachhaltigen Aquakulturen. Letzte Änderung: Das Friend of the Sea© Siegel ist ein international anerkanntes Gütezeichen zur Kennzeichnung von Produkten aus nachhaltiger Fischerei. Es bestätigt, dass.
Of The Sea Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law
Die Oasis of the Seas (dt. Oase der Meere) ist ein Kreuzfahrtschiff der Reederei Royal Caribbean International. Sie ist das Typschiff der Oasis-Klasse. In der. Song of the Sea, Lisa Hannigan. 2. The Mother's Portrait. 3. The Sea Scene. 4. The Song, Lisa Hannigan und Lucy O'Connell. 5. The Key in the Sea. 6. Skype: bumblebeeproductions.nu Corso Buenos Aires, 45 – Milan, Italy VAT. IT If you are a journalist, write to [email protected] Die Bewertung für das Lebensmittel-Label Friend of the Sea im WWF Einkaufsratgeber. Der WWF und andere Partner haben die 31 wichtigsten Labels auf dem. Friend of the Sea (FOTS) wurde von Dr. Paolo Bray ins Leben gerufen. wurden die Standards von FOTS überarbeitet und gehen nun auch auf die. The heroes of the seas are the role models we need to save the oceans. But without proper attention their work will not be widely circulated. That's why we try to. Gütesiegel der Organisation Friend of the Sea für Fisch und Meeresfrüchte aus nachhaltiger Fischerei und nachhaltigen Aquakulturen. Letzte Änderung:
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Carpenter and C. Wyville Thomson , who in discovered life in deep water by dredging. At great depths, no light penetrates through the water layers from above and the pressure is extreme.
For deep sea exploration it is necessary to use specialist vehicles, either remotely operated underwater vehicles with lights and cameras or manned submersibles.
They have viewing ports, 5,watt lights, video equipment and manipulator arms for collecting samples, placing probes or pushing the vehicle across the sea bed when the thrusters would stir up excessive sediment.
Bathymetry is the mapping and study of the topography of the ocean floor. Methods used for measuring the depth of the sea include single or multibeam echosounders , laser airborne depth sounders and the calculation of depths from satellite remote sensing data.
This information is used for determining the routes of undersea cables and pipelines, for choosing suitable locations for siting oil rigs and offshore wind turbines and for identifying possible new fisheries.
Ongoing oceanographic research includes marine lifeforms, conservation, the marine environment, the chemistry of the ocean, the studying and modelling of climate dynamics, the air-sea boundary, weather patterns, ocean resources, renewable energy, waves and currents, and the design and development of new tools and technologies for investigating the deep.
It stresses freedom to navigate the oceans and disapproves of war fought in international waters. Article 87 1 states: "The high seas are open to all states , whether coastal or land-locked.
Its objectives include developing and maintaining a regulatory framework for shipping, maritime safety, environmental concerns, legal matters, technical co-operation and maritime security.
Within this area, the coastal nation has sole exploitation rights over all natural resources. The "continental shelf" is the natural prolongation of the land territory to the continental margin 's outer edge, or nautical miles from the coastal state's baseline, whichever is greater.
Here the coastal nation has the exclusive right to harvest minerals and also living resources "attached" to the seabed.
Control of the sea is important to the security of a maritime nation, and the naval blockade of a port can be used to cut off food and supplies in time of war.
Battles have been fought on the sea for more than 3, years. In about B. Battle of Salamis , the Greek general Themistocles trapped the far larger fleet of the Persian king Xerxes in a narrow channel and attacked vigorously, destroying Persian ships for the loss of 40 Greek vessels.
With steam and the industrial production of steel plate came greatly increased firepower in the shape of the dreadnought battleships armed with long-range guns.
Submarines became important in naval warfare in World War I, when German submarines, known as U-boats , sank nearly 5, Allied merchant ships,  including however the RMS Lusitania , so helping to bring the United States into the war.
Some of these are kept permanently on patrol. Sailing ships or packets carried mail overseas, one of the earliest being the Dutch service to Batavia in the s.
Later, scheduled services were offered but the time journeys took depended much on the weather. When steamships replaced sailing vessels, ocean-going liners took over the task of carrying people.
By the beginning of the twentieth century, crossing the Atlantic took about five days and shipping companies competed to own the largest and fastest vessels.
The Blue Riband was an unofficial accolade given to the fastest liner crossing the Atlantic in regular service. The Mauretania held the title with The great liners were comfortable but expensive in fuel and staff.
The age of the trans-Atlantic liners waned as cheap intercontinental flights became available. In , a regular scheduled air service between New York and Paris taking seven hours doomed the Atlantic ferry service to oblivion.
One by one the vessels were laid up, some were scrapped, others became cruise ships for the leisure industry and still others floating hotels.
Maritime trade has existed for millennia. The Ptolemaic dynasty had developed trade with India using the Red Sea ports and in the first millennium BC the Arabs , Phoenicians, Israelites and Indians traded in luxury goods such as spices, gold, and precious stones.
With the collapse of the Roman Empire, European trade dwindled but it continued to flourish among the kingdoms of Africa, the Middle East, India, China and southeastern Asia.
Nowadays, large quantities of goods are transported by sea, especially across the Atlantic and around the Pacific Rim. A major trade route passes through the Pillars of Hercules , across the Mediterranean and the Suez Canal to the Indian Ocean and through the Straits of Malacca ; much trade also passes through the English Channel.
Over 60 percent of the world's container traffic is conveyed on the top twenty trade routes. There are two main kinds of freight, bulk cargo and break bulk or general cargo, most of which is now transported in containers.
Commodities in the form of liquids, powder or particles are carried loose in the holds of bulk carriers and include oil, grain, coal, ore, scrap metal, sand and gravel.
Break bulk cargo is usually manufactured goods and is transported in packages, often stacked on pallets. Before the arrival of containerization in the s, these goods were loaded, transported and unloaded piecemeal.
Fish and other fishery products are among the most widely consumed sources of protein and other essential nutrients. Modern fishing vessels include fishing trawlers with a small crew, stern trawlers, purse seiners, long-line factory vessels and large factory ships which are designed to stay at sea for weeks, processing and freezing great quantities of fish.
The equipment used to capture the fish may be purse seines , other seines, trawls , dredges, gillnets and long-lines and the fish species most frequently targeted are herring , cod , anchovy , tuna , flounder , mullet , squid and salmon.
Overexploitation itself has become a serious concern; it does not only cause the depletion of fish stocks, but also substantially reduce the size of predatory fish populations.
Artisan fishing methods include rod and line, harpoons, skin diving, traps, throw nets and drag nets.
Traditional fishing boats are powered by paddle, wind or outboard motors and operate in near-shore waters. The Food and Agriculture Organization is encouraging the development of local fisheries to provide food security to coastal communities and help alleviate poverty.
About six hundred species of plants and animals were cultured, some for use in seeding wild populations. The animals raised included finfish , aquatic reptiles , crustaceans, molluscs, sea cucumbers , sea urchins , sea squirts and jellyfish.
Mesh enclosures for finfish can be suspended in the open seas, cages can be used in more sheltered waters or ponds can be refreshed with water at each high tide.
Shrimps can be reared in shallow ponds connected to the open sea. Oysters can be reared on trays or in mesh tubes. Sea cucumbers can be ranched on the seabed.
In the s, disease wiped out China's farmed Farrer's scallop and white shrimp and required their replacement by other species. Use of the sea for leisure developed in the nineteenth century, and became a significant industry in the twentieth century.
Humans enjoy venturing into the sea; children paddle and splash in the shallows and many people take pleasure in bathing and relaxing on the beach.
This was not always the case, with sea bathing becoming the vogue in Europe in the 18th century after Dr. William Buchan advocated the practice for health reasons.
Other marine water sports include kite surfing , where a power kite propels a manned board across the water,  windsurfing , where the power is provided by a fixed, manoeuvrable sail  and water skiing , where a powerboat is used to pull a skier.
Beneath the surface, freediving is necessarily restricted to shallow descents. Other useful equipment includes fins and snorkels , and scuba equipment allows underwater breathing and hence a longer time can be spent beneath the surface.
Deeper dives can be made with specialised equipment and training. The sea offers a very large supply of energy carried by ocean waves , tides , salinity differences, and ocean temperature differences which can be harnessed to generate electricity.
Tidal power uses generators to produce electricity from tidal flows, sometimes by using a dam to store and then release seawater.
The Rance barrage, 1 kilometre 0. The large and highly variable energy of waves gives them enormous destructive capability, making affordable and reliable wave machines problematic to develop.
It was soon damaged by waves, then destroyed by a storm. Offshore wind power is captured by wind turbines placed out at sea; it has the advantage that wind speeds are higher than on land, though wind farms are more costly to construct offshore.
Electricity power stations are often located on the coast or beside an estuary so that the sea can be used as a heat sink.
A colder heat sink enables more efficient power generation, which is important for expensive nuclear power plants in particular.
The seabed contains enormous reserves of minerals which can be exploited by dredging. This has advantages over land-based mining in that equipment can be built at specialised shipyards and infrastructure costs are lower.
Disadvantages include problems caused by waves and tides, the tendency for excavations to silt up and the washing away of spoil heaps.
There is a risk of coastal erosion and environmental damage. Seafloor massive sulphide deposits are potential sources of silver , gold , copper , lead and zinc and trace metals since their discovery in the s.
They form when geothermally heated water is emitted from deep sea hydrothermal vents known as "black smokers".
The ores are of high quality but prohibitively costly to extract. There are large deposits of petroleum , as oil and natural gas , in rocks beneath the seabed.
Offshore platforms and drilling rigs extract the oil or gas and store it for transport to land. Offshore oil and gas production can be difficult due to the remote, harsh environment.
Animals may be disorientated by seismic waves used to locate deposits, and there is debate as to whether this causes the beaching of whales.
The infrastructure may cause damage, and oil may be spilt. In the Pacific these may cover up to 30 percent of the deep ocean floor.
The minerals precipitate from seawater and grow very slowly. Their commercial extraction for nickel was investigated in the s but abandoned in favour of more convenient sources.
In deeper waters, mobile seafloor crawlers are used and the deposits are pumped to a vessel above. In Namibia, more diamonds are now collected from marine sources than by conventional methods on land.
The sea holds enormous quantities of valuable dissolved minerals. Bromine , accumulated after being leached from the land, is economically recovered from the Dead Sea, where it occurs at 55, parts per million ppm.
Desalination is the technique of removing salts from seawater to leave fresh water suitable for drinking or irrigation. The two main processing methods, vacuum distillation and reverse osmosis , use large quantities of energy.
Desalination is normally only undertaken where fresh water from other sources is in short supply or energy is plentiful, as in the excess heat generated by power stations.
The brine produced as a by-product contains some toxic materials and is returned to the sea. Many substances enter the sea as a result of human activities.
Combustion products are transported in the air and deposited into the sea by precipitation. Industrial outflows and sewage contribute heavy metals , pesticides , PCBs , disinfectants , household cleaning products and other synthetic chemicals.
These become concentrated in the surface film and in marine sediment, especially estuarine mud. The result of all this contamination is largely unknown because of the large number of substances involved and the lack of information on their biological effects.
Much floating plastic rubbish does not biodegrade , instead disintegrating over time and eventually breaking down to the molecular level.
Rigid plastics may float for years. Turtles and whales have been found with plastic bags and fishing line in their stomachs. Microplastics may sink, threatening filter feeders on the seabed.
Most oil pollution in the sea comes from cities and industry. It can clog the feathers of sea birds, reducing their insulating effect and the birds' buoyancy, and be ingested when they preen themselves in an attempt to remove the contaminant.
Marine mammals are less seriously affected but may be chilled through the removal of their insulation, blinded, dehydrated or poisoned.
Benthic invertebrates are swamped when the oil sinks, fish are poisoned and the food chain is disrupted. In the short term, oil spills result in wildlife populations being decreased and unbalanced, leisure activities being affected and the livelihoods of people dependent on the sea being devastated.
In the Gulf of Mexico , where oil-eating bacteria are already present, they take only a few days to consume spilt oil. Run-off of fertilisers from agricultural land is a major source of pollution in some areas and the discharge of raw sewage has a similar effect.
The extra nutrients provided by these sources can cause excessive plant growth. Nitrogen is often the limiting factor in marine systems, and with added nitrogen, algal blooms and red tides can lower the oxygen level of the water and kill marine animals.
Such events have created dead zones in the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The Irish Sea was contaminated by radioactive caesium from the former Sellafield nuclear fuel processing plant  and nuclear accidents may also cause radioactive material to seep into the sea, as did the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in The dumping of waste including oil, noxious liquids, sewage and garbage at sea is governed by international law.
The London Convention is a United Nations agreement to control ocean dumping which had been ratified by 89 countries by 8 June Several nomadic indigenous groups in Maritime Southeast Asia live in boats and derive nearly all they need from the sea.
The indigenous peoples of the Arctic such as the Chukchi , Inuit , Inuvialuit and Yup'iit hunt marine mammals including seals and whales,  and the Torres Strait Islanders of Australia include ownership of the Great Barrier Reef among their possessions.
They live a traditional life on the islands involving hunting, fishing, gardening and trading with neighbouring peoples in Papua and mainland Aboriginal Australians.
The sea appears in human culture in contradictory ways, as both powerful but serene and as beautiful but dangerous. The sea and ships have been depicted in art ranging from simple drawings on the walls of huts in Lamu  to seascapes by Joseph Turner.
Music too has been inspired by the ocean, sometimes by composers who lived or worked near the shore and saw its many different aspects. Sea shanties , songs that were chanted by mariners to help them perform arduous tasks, have been woven into compositions and impressions in music have been created of calm waters, crashing waves and storms at sea.
As a symbol, the sea has for centuries played a role in literature , poetry and dreams. Sometimes it is there just as a gentle background but often it introduces such themes as storm, shipwreck, battle, hardship, disaster, the dashing of hopes and death.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Sea disambiguation and The Sea disambiguation. Not to be confused with Ocean or World Ocean.
Please do not move this article until the discussion is closed. Large body of salt water. Further information: List of seas.
Main articles: Oceanography and Physical oceanography. Main article: Seawater. Play media. Main article: Wind wave. Main article: Tsunami.
Main article: Ocean current. Main article: Tide. Main article: Sea level. Main article: Water cycle. Main article: Oceanic carbon cycle.
Main article: Ocean acidification. Main article: Marine life. Main article: Marine habitats. Main articles: History of navigation , History of cartography , Maritime history , Ancient maritime history , and Ocean exploration.
Main article: Deep-sea exploration. Main article: Naval warfare. Main articles: Shipping and Trade. Main articles: Fishing , Whaling , Aquaculture , and Seaweed farming.
Main articles: Cruising maritime , Sailing , and Recreational boat fishing. Main articles: Marine energy and Offshore wind power. Main articles: Offshore drilling and Deep sea mining.
Main article: Marine pollution. Main article: Sea in culture. Oceans portal Water portal Geography portal. One definition is that a sea is a sub-division of an ocean, which means that it must have oceanic basin crust on its floor.
This definition accepts the Caspian as a sea because it was once part of an ancient ocean. Experiments to recreate the conditions of the lower mantle suggest it may contain still more water as well, as much as five times the mass of water present in the world's oceans.
Gradually, they fall in with other waves travelling at similar speed—-where different waves are in phase they reinforce each other, and where out of phase they are reduced.
Eventually, a regular pattern of high and low waves or swell is developed that remains constant as it travels out across the ocean. Ocean Power Magazine.
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Osprey Publishing. Military communications: from ancient times to the 21st century.Jetzt stöbern. Als es diesen anlegt, ist es auf einmal in der Lage mit den Robben im Wasser zu tauchen. Pokerturnier Software Caribbean Spielaffe Spiel. Und wie sieht es mit IP-Suisse aus? Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte.